RICE HISTORY, CULTIVATION, CHARACTERISTICS, PROCESSING, STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS, &
HISTORY & INTRODUCTION
The history of Rice is as old as mankind, but probably not older than 2,800 B.C. as known to the historians. Originally Paddy was a self growing plant in the low lying areas adjoining sea shores and river banks. In the sub continent, Rice grain botanically known as “oryza stiva“ is the staple food of almost half of the mankind. Its coarse varieties are consumed by low-income people while the fine and improved types with varying recipes occupy the important place at elite class dinning tables. No formal or informal occasion can afford to skip this important food item at homes or restaurants, hence consumed in huge quantities all over the world. It is relished by the majority of people irrespective of class, rich or poor. Rice, being the most enriched food grain, is grown all over the world and is a comprehensive food consisting of the following ingredients:-
Nutritional value per 100 grams (Energy 350 Calories)
- Protein : 6.4 grams
- Carbohydrates : 79 grams
- Dietary Fiber : 2.4 grams
- Fat : 0.4 grams
- Calcium : 09 ml grams
- Iron : 04 ml grams
- Thiamine : 0.21 ml grams
- Riboflavin : 0.05 ml grams
- Niacin : 03.8 ml grams
For a conventional grain crop there are three major factors for its raising viz. fertile soil (land), desired water requirements and fertilizers (mineral constituents), but rice is a crop which requires a warm, humid and damp climate from the period of its sowing (transplantation) till its ripening and this factor rather becomes imperative for fine varieties of rice. The moist atmosphere during this period helps in making the rice grain longer in size, transparent & lustrous in texture, aromatic and palatable in taste. These typical environments prevail in Punjab where world’s finest varieties of Basmati Rice are grown in fertile lands of Punjab irrigated by snow fed rivers of Himalayas. The “Kallar Tract”, a bowl-shaped region in Punjab known to produce Basmati has further premium over Basmati from other regions.
CULTIVATION OF RICE CROP
Rice crop grown in Pakistan on just over 2.5 million hectares not only meets the domestic requirements but also a sizeable surplus becomes available for export. Basmati rice, grown largely in Sheikhupura, Sialkot, Gujranwala, Narowal, Gujrat, Lahore and Sahiwal districts of the Punjab province, is quite famous in the world for its peculiar taste and aroma. ‘Super’ and ‘Basmati 385’ are the two Basmati varieties of Pakistan which are quite popular across the world. Non-basmati varieties, also known as coarse rice, largely come from Larkana, Jacobabed, Dadu, Sukkur, Thatta, Badin, and Hyderabad districts of the Province of Sindh. These varieties are non – aromatic and richer in starch as compared to Basmati varieties. Export consignments of non – Basmati consists of large quantities mainly because these are procured by governments to ensure availability of food for their population. This rice is also procured by welfare organization for distribution amongst the people in calamity stricken areas. The non – basmati varieties exported from Pakistan include: IRRI – 9, KS – 282 & IRRI-6.
BASMATI – The superior quality rice
The Basmati Rice is one of the most favorite cereals consumed by people around the globe. The word Basmati was derived from combination of two words i.e., BAS means fragrance and MATI means soil (earth). The grains are longer & straight in look, but there seems to be a curve at the bottom of grain & near to its tip. Some of the grains are not pointed and the tips appear to be round besides, if the grain is looked at from its head, the portion of lower end from where it grows, seems to be little broken. The smaller grains show visible curve and are little thicker at their tips and slightly thinner at head. Some of the grains are translucent. Aged Rice is 1 – 2 years old and as the moisture evaporates, the naturally present oil spreads throughout the grain delivering its distinct flavor. The cooking of aged Basmati rice yields long grain rice, which grows twice its length giving nice aroma and excellent taste. Each grain of rice is a complete package of nutrition, which provides health and energy. It is no wonder that more than half of the world’s population is dependent on rice as their staple diet. In fact, rice alone is capable of supplying 80% of the body’s daily nutritional requirements. The healthful and gluten free grain is one of the best source of complex carbohydrates, the high energy fuel that powers the body. Although rice lacks a few essential amino acids to make it a complete protein rich diet, yet this deficiency is compensated when eaten with small portion of animal or vegetable protein. Rice is a light food and is easy to digest.
VALUE ADDITION & BLENDING
Rice sells on varied prices depending on its variety and grade. The supreme varieties of Pakistan Basmati, Super and Kernel, sell on highest prices followed by Basmati – 385. Varieties of rice are sub – divided into grades based mainly in the proportion of broken rice on a consignment. Moreover, a consignment may contain different varieties under an agreement between buyer and seller. This nature of trade is prone to temptation for unreasonably excessive mixing of inferior varieties to extract exorbitant profits from unwary consumers. This malpractice leads to distortion in the image of rice because Pakistani Basmati rice is renowned the world over for its distinctive aroma and other cooking qualities like elongation and non – stickiness of grains in cooking. The mixing of inferior rice in basmati varieties has marring effect on these characteristics and unbridled mixing of inferior varieties can result in loss of popularity of superior varieties, which, in turn, would inflict irreparable damage to the export of rice.
OLD IS GOLD
Rice is a food item which if stored raw having excessive moisture percentage (over 16% for brown and over 14% for white) Perishes or gets damaged, but certainly the extra moisture should be exhausted through aging process in specified conditions in ventilated stores. The proper aging means the grain should lose the extra moisture and come to the normal moisture contents of 10 – 12%. Anything less than 9%, the grain becomes brittle and breaks. In- fact this is the moisture content in which the grain has the ability to sustain its form and germinate if sown (paddy grain). Hence rice grains keep on loosing moisture and improve cooking quality from 1-2 years, get stable and nearly after three years should start loosing their cooking quality. So we can safely say that its shelf life could be maximum 3 years or so.
Rice is a food item which if stored raw having excessive moisture percentage (over 16% for brown and over 14% for white) gets damaged, but certainly the extra moisture should be exhausted through aging in specified conditions in ventilated stores. The proper aging means the grain should loose the extra moisture and come to the normal moisture contents of 10-12%. Anything less than 9%, the grain becomes brittle and breaks. In- fact this is the moisture content in which the grain has the ability to sustain its form and germinate if sown (paddy grain). Hence rice grains keep on loosing moisture and improve cooking quality from 1-2 years, get stable and nearly after three years should start loosing their cooking quality. So we can safely say that its shelf life could be maximum 3 years or so.
EXPORT OF RICE FROM PAKISTAN
After textile, rice is the largest foreign exchange earner. Pakistani Basmati rice has established its good reputation and credibility in the rice consuming countries due to its peculiar character traits, shape and palatability. Pakistan’s major Basmati rice export markets are U.A.E, Saudi Arabia, UK, Yemen, Qatar, Bahrain, Kuwait, Malaysia, and USA and major non – basmati markets include Afghanistan, Iran, Ivory Coast, Dubai, Bangladesh, Kenya, Malagasy, Iraq, Indonesia, Morocco, Malaysia, Cameroon, Kuwait, Mauritius, Nigeria, Portuguese Guinea, Qatar, Benin, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Oman, and Togo.
Our competing countries in case of non – basmati rice include Thailand, India, Vietnam and Myanmar. In case of Basmati rice the only competing country is India.
It is a state of whiteness / polish and not the variety of rice. It is the processing of rice wherein 6-7 layers of bran are removed through abrasive action of Polishers and mutual friction of rice grains. The rice grains are passed through series of 3 to 4 Polishers for gradual whitening of rice. These grains are further passed through wet/jet Polishers wherein rice grains are passed through compressed air / water around stainless steel roller to give a cosmetic / silky effect on rice. What we could gather is that double polish is better than silky polish, It may be true as in the double polish state of rice, less grain nutrients are removed as compared with silky polish, hence it may be more nutritive and more palatable, of course Basmati Super is better than Basmati pk-385.
The ratio of rice versus water for all rice varieties is almost similar i.e., one for rice and 1.5 to 1.75 for water. For fresh crop (6 months to 1 year old) 1.5 and for older than one year 1.75 of water is required.
Rice grains contain 0.2 to 0.4% oil contents and basmati rice is richer in oil contents than Irri 9 / Irri 6 (coarse variety) All rice varieties are (boiled rice) easily digestible if consumed in the recommended quantity i.e., leaving at least 1/4th of belly empty.
OTHER USEFUL INFORMATION
Height of the plant : 115cm.
Time of sowing nursery : 20 May to 07 June
Time of transplanting : 20 June to 07 July
Time of harvesting : 20 Oct to 07 Nov
Maturity Period : 120 days
STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR PAKISTANI RICE
The standard Specification were adopted by the Pakistan Standard Institute on 25-01-1993 after the draft finalized by the Cereal Pulses and their products Sectional Committee approved by the Agricultural and Food Products Divisional Council. All quantities in this Standard have been given in International system of units. Rice standard means the quality of rice which is set according to its varieties and grades. The quality is determined by the types of grains, grain composition as well as milling degree set for each variety and grade of rice. The quality of rice may differ from season to season and thus for the sake of comparison, standard rice samples will be established from time to time. Rice Crop in Pakistan not only meets the domestic requirements of food and fodder, but also the major source of foreign exchange earning. The foreign exchange earning due to rice exported abroad from Pakistan has also been increasing every year with increase in production.
The quality of rice is determined according to the combination following criteria:
a) Grain Length Classification
b) Milling process
c) Variety or Type of rice
e) Milling degree
The quality is determined by the combination of all above factors.
RICE means milled rice which includes cargo rice, white rice, glutinous rice, and par-boiled rice, whether it be whole grain, head rice, big broken, broken, or small broken.
CARGO RICE: (BROWN RICE, HUSKED RICE) means rice obtained from paddy which has been husked and milled white by removing its bran layers. This includes its whole grain, head rice, big broken, broken, and small broken.
WHITE RICE: means rice obtained from paddy which has been husked and milled white by removing its bran layers. This includes its whole grain, head rice, big broken, broken, and small broken.
PARBOILED RICE: may be husked or milled rice processed form paddy or husked rice that has been soaked in water and subjected to a heat treatment so that the starch is fully gelatinized, followed by a drying process.
GRAIN CLASSIFICATION means the proportional mixture of rice of different classes to form up a grade. Rice kernel is divided into four classes, namely:
EXTRA LONG GRAIN shall be the head rice/whole grain having the average grain length of 7.00 mm or more.
LONG GRAIN shall be the head rice/whole grain having the average grain length of more than 6.00 but not more than 6.9 mm.
MEDIUM GRAIN shall be the head rice/whole grain having the average grain length of more than 5.0 mm but not more than 5.9 mm.
SHORT GRAIN shall be the head rice/whole grain having the average grain length of 5.00 mm or less.
Parts of Kernel:
The whole kernel is divided into ten equal parts for the purpose of classification of red rice and broken rice.
Sizes of Kernel:
Whole grain: (kernel) is divided into six sizes, namely:
Head rice: means the kernel that retains the length of 8/10th or more of the average length of the unbroken kernel as specified for that particular class rice.
¾ Broken: means the broken kernel that has 7.5/10th length of the average length of the unbroken kernel as specified for that particular class of rice.
½ Broken: means the broken kernel that has 5/10th length of the average length of the unbroken kernel as specified for that particular class of rice.
¼ Broken: means the broken kernel that has 2.50/10th length of the average length of the unbroken kernel as specified for that particular class of rice.
Small Broken: means the broken kernel that has 2/10th or less length of the average length of the unbroken kernel as specified for that particular class of rice.
Moisture: means condensed vapor in the rice which is measurable.
Damaged Kernel: means the kernel which is 25% or more distinctly discolored or damaged by heat, water, disease, insects or other means.
Yellow Kernel: means the kernel of which 25% or more of the surface area has turned yellow in color.
Chalky Kernel: means the kernel of which 50% or more of the surface area is white like the color of chalk. The core whiteness of Basmati-385 variety shall not be the considered as chalky grain while completely chalk like grain of this variety shall be the considered chalky kernels.
Red Strip Kernel: means the kernel of which 25% or more of the surface area is covered with outer red bran layer.
Shriveled Kernel: means the kernel which is spear like in shape and whose width is distinctly thinner than normal.
Green Rice: means the kernel of green colour in Cargo (Brown) rice which when broken is also green in colour from inside or in the endosperm.
Split Kernel: means a kernel that breaks lengthwise into parts. The parts with 8/10 or more of its whole area shall be regarded as head rice and the lesser part as broken.
Pddy: means rice encased in its husk.
Foreign Matter: means all material other than kernel, bran or paddy.
Foreign Grains: means seeds other than rice such as wheat pulses etc.
Under Milled Rice: means milled rice which is not equal to the milling requirements for “Extra Well Milled” ,”Reasonably Well Milled” and “Ordinary Milled” as defined under Grades of Milled Rice for milling degree.
Ungelatinized Grains: whole or broken grains of parboiled rice with distinct white or chalky areas due to incomplete gelatinization of the starch.
Contrasting Variety: is defined for Basmati rice as all non-Basmati varieties including Kashmira rice variety in all grades of Pakistan Basmati rice shall be considered as contrasting variety whether Brown rice, Milled white rice or parboiled (Sela) rice.
Grade of Milled Rice: the milling degree of rice is divided into three, namely:
Extra Well Milled means the milling of paddy from which the husk, the germ, and the outer bran layers together with the inner ones (cargo and white meal) have been completely removed (to the extant that the appearance of the kernel is translucent).
Well Milled means the milling of paddy from which the husk, the germs, and both of its outer and inner bran layers (cargo and white meal) have been entirely removed to a degree that the translucence of the kernel is slightly less than that of extra well milled rice.
Ordinary Milled means the milling of paddy from which the husk and certain parts of germ and the whole part of its outer bran layers (cargo meal) have been removed with some part of its bran layers (white meal) remain intact. The degree of its translucence is moderate and being less than that of reasonably well milled rice.
PHYSICAL & CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS
The moisture content shall not be greater than 14% (m/m). The maximum contents of extraneous matter and defective kernels in husked and milled rice, whether or not parboiled, and determined in accordance with the method described in Pakistan Standard Specification manual. All commercial contracts should show clearly the total percentage of broken kernels permitted, classified according to the agreed categories and relative proportions of each category, and the total percentage of extraneous matter and of defective kernels, determined in accordance with the method described in Pakistan Standard Specification manual.